1) The island of Philae, with justification has earned the nickname “Pearl of Egypt”, for its unique ensemble of sacred buildings and harmonious natural surroundings squeezed together on the small island (approx. 460*150m) lay an entire city of temples that had been built in honor of the goddess Isis.
2) During the course of moving the shrines to the neighboring island of Agilkia in the 1970s,hundreds of recycled stone blocks were recovered from the foundations which allowed the cult and building tradition on Philae to be dated back to as early as the Twenty-fifth or Twenty-sixth Dynasties .
3) The earliest reliable known building reliably known building patron on the island was Nectanebo 1st (thirteen dynasty) while the main buildings date from the Greco-Roman period ,some of the relief decoration even extends up to the time of the emperor Marcus Aurelius and Commodus (late 2nd century A.D).
4) The great mother goddess, Isis was so popular that her cult on Philae lasted longer than that of the other Egyptian gods, there is a graffito inscribed into stone in demotic script by a pilgrim, dates from 452A.D, till the reign of Justinian in the 6th century her shrine finally closed and it was converted into church that of St. Stephen.
5) The main temple of Philae was dedicated to Isis and her son Harpocrates (“Horus the child”), it dates back to the Ptolemaic period, and today the large outer courtyard lined with long colonnades whose decoration dates from the early Roman Empire which is entered through the kiosk built by Nectanebo 1st.
6) In front of the mighty entrance pylon of the Temple of Isis, once there were two granite lion statues and a pair of obelisks stood, but these were removed at the beginning of the 19th century by the Italian adventure Giovanni Battista Belzoni. The reliefs on the first pylon show Ptolemy 12th Neos Dionysoso smiting the enemies, above these triumph scenes, the ruler is shown in several smaller reliefs making sacrifices to the God.
7) The Mammisi or the Birth House in Philae is a row of columns on the courtyard side and it dates back to the Ptolemaic period. Traditionally the birth houses of later shrines are situated outside the main temple as independent structures, Philae is the only known example where the mammisi is incorporated as a peripteral structure into the western tower of the main pylon.
8) To the northwest of the temple of Isis against the perimeter wall of the complex, there is the Gate of Hadrian, dates back to the Roman period (2nd century A.D) from the time of the Emperor Hadrian (117_138 A.D) ,below the main reliefs of the largely destroyed antechamber which relate the cult of Osiris ,the mythical sources of the Nile and it is probably the most famous individual scene on all the shrines on Philae is depicted ,the Nile God Hapi encircled by a snake, kneels in his grotto at the foot of a towering rock formation.
9) Somewhat to the east of Isis temple a small shrine was raised to the goddess Hathor and it was originally constructed during the Ptolemaic period and its forecourt and the inner sanctuary were only added under Emperor Augustus.
10) The great Kiosk of Trajan in temple island of Philae, dates back to the Roman period and it stands on the eastern back of the island, although its relief decoration remains incomplete, the capitals of the plant motif columns impress with the richness of their detail and the kiosk structures of widely varying sizes are a characteristic Graeco-Roman architectural form in Egypt.